Safe Travel Recommendations
Basic recommendations for clients who are planning to travel and want their devices to be safe
The client is seeking advice about how to keep their computer, phone or information safe while travelling.
We need to evaluate the situation in the country the client is travelling to, as well as the client’s needs, by asking the client the following questions:
- Which country or countries will you visit during their travels?
- Do you need to travel with your devices?
- Do you need to access sensitive data while travelling?
- Do you need to encrypt your communications?
- Do you need to access your email and/or social media accounts?
Once we know which country or countries the client will visit, we need to answer these questions by examining the context:
- Is the country censoring the internet?
- Does the country have a high Internet penetration rate with high speed Internet connections available?
- Are there any laws against the import or usage of encryption?
- What do the border controls imply?
- Can the authorities force someone to unlock their devices or storage media?
- Can the authorities request passwords of email and social media accounts?
- Could the authorities seize the client’s devices?
If the country is censoring the internet, we should recommend the usage of circumvention tools - see “Censorship Circumvention” below.
If the country is not censoring the internet, we should still recommend the usage of a VPN for encrypting connections when the network is not secure - see “Insecure networks” below.
If the import or usage of encryption is banned, the client should make sure that no encryption software or encrypted files are present in their devices when crossing the border. If they need to encrypt or decrypt data or communications, they should download the software and/or the encrypted files from a cloud through a trusted connection (see “Data minimization and backup” below).
If the the authorities can force visitors to unlock their devices or storage media at the border, the client should leave their devices at home or travel with a barebone computer, or else minimize their data (see “Data minimization and backup” below).
If the authorities can request passwords of email and social media accounts, the client should consider creating alternative accounts (see “Alternative accounts” below).
If the authorities could seize the client’s device, they should consider travelling without a device, as a device that is not constantly under their control might be compromised (see “Leaving devices at home” below).
If the client needs to travel with their own devices, they should back up all their data and leave them at home (see “Data minimization and backup” below). They should however think twice if there is a high risk that their device is seized.
If the device they need to take with them is a mobile phone, they might consider leaving their SIM card at home and buying a new one once they’re inside the country.
If the client does not need their own devices, they can consider travelling with an alternative laptop and/or a burner phone (see “Leaving devices at home” below). If the software they need is not illegal in the country, they can install the software they will need, but it’s a good idea to travel with as few data as possible.
If the client keeps data on their devices while travelling, they should use full-disk encryption (see “Full-Disk encryption” below).
- If encryption is illegal and/or the authorities can force the client to unlock their devices at the border, it is better to store their data in an encrypted folder in a trusted server or cloud service and download them through a secure connection once they’re inside the country (see “Leaving devices at home” below).
- If encryption is not banned, but the authorities can force the client to unlock the devices, they can store the data in a hidden volume with Veracrypt (see “Leaving devices at home” below).
If the client needs to encrypt their communications, we should give them the following advice:
- email - if encryption is not illegal in the destination country, they should store their PGP keys in an encrypted USB stick that they keep always with them. If encryption is illegal, they can store the keys in an encrypted folder in a trusted server or cloud service (see “Leaving devices at home” below).
- mobile phones - see “Secure communications on mobile devices” below.
- If encryption is illegal in the destination country, any encryption software should be downloaded through a trusted VPN or through Tor when the client is inside the country.
If the client needs to access their email/social media accounts, they should activate multi-factor authentication and use strong and unique passwords, which they should store in an encrypted KeePassX database.
If encryption is banned in the destination country, the encrypted KeePassX database can be stored in a trusted server or cloud service and downloaded after the border control.
When connecting to their accounts, the client should always check that they are connecting to the website through TLS/SSL and use a VPN if they’re connecting to the web through an untrusted network (see “Insecure networks” below).
If the client doesn’t need to access their email/social media accounts, they can create an alternative account for communications (see “Alternative accounts” below).
Basic security practices
Some of the following recommendations are general security practices, but they should be implemented with special care when planning a journey.
Check that the client’s system is updated (operating system, programs, anti-virus).
Check that an antivirus is installed in the client’s system, otherwise provide them with instructions for installing it (see Article #128: Antivirus for Mac).
Warn the client against opening non requested attachments or strange emails.
Recommend to set up multi-factor authentication.
- EFF’s Security Self-defence guide on setting up multi-factor authentication
- Google: Please refer to Article #90: Two-Factor Authentication for Google Account.
- Outlook and Microsoft FAQ on 2FA
- Yahoo: Please refer to Article #168: Secure Yahoo Account with 2-Step Verification. Also see the guide by Yahoo
Warn the client against shoulder surfers or cameras that could record their passwords while they’re entering it.
- Recommend the client to always keep their devices with them and to switch them off whenever they have to leave them unattended. They should also enable the automatic screenlock feature on all devices.
If the client does not use strong and unique passwords, it is important that they do so before their travels.
Data minimization and backup
The client needs to understand that it is better to minimize the data they will be carrying with them. If possible, they should travel with a barebone computer, otherwise they should back up sensitive data and/or data that are potentially illegal in the destination country to an encrypted device and leave them at home.
- Please refer to Article #182: FAQ - Secure Backup.
Potentially illegal data might include authorized copies of copyrighted material (such as music and video), pornography, and even innocent photographs of unclothed minors.
If they need data while travelling to a country where these data might be illegal, they can store either just their data (encrypted) or an entire image of their system complete with software in a trusted server or cloud service provider and travel with a barebone laptop. Once arrived at their destination, they can download the data and/or software, and re-upload them before departure. This setup provides both data minimization and an accessible backup, but it limits work while in transit.
Leaving devices at home
If the client does not need to take their devices with them, we should recommend they leave them at home in a safe or in a trusted environment.
While they’re travelling, they can take with them a travel laptop and/or a burner phone. These devices should be encrypted and equipped with VPN access, and should possibly contain no information. If the client needs access to specific files, we can set up a server where they can store encrypted files and then download them to their computer once they are inside the country.
- If the client is going to travel with a ChromeBook, this is a good resource for its preparation.
Another safer way of carrying data, if it’s unlikely that the authorities will request to unlock all devices and media at the border control, and if encryption is not illegal in the destination country, would be to store the data encrypted in a hidden VeraCrypt volume in a USB stick, or else in a Tails encrypted persistent volume live USB.
If it is advisable to travel with no devices, the client will have to rely on shared computers.
When using shared computers, the client should avoid exchanging sensitive communications or log into personal accounts, and if they need to do so, they should always remember to log out of their accounts at the end of the session (also see “Alternative accounts” below).
We should warn the client that a keylogger or other spyware may have been installed in the shared devices they will be using. The best solutions to this is a custom live USB that has been prepared with their choice of operating system and the basic software they need. This lets them boot their own trusted operating system from the USB and bypass the untrusted computer’s standard setup entirely. A good solution, can be a Tails USB stick.
Important: If the destination country bans the import or usage encryption, we should warn the client not to cross the border with encryption software or encrypted data.
Recommend to enable full-disk encryption on all the devices the client will be carrying during their travels.
- Please refer to Article #166: Full-Disk Encryption (FDE).
It is very important that when connecting to insecure networks, for example in hotels, airports or cafes, a VPN service is used. A compilation of VPN providers that claim to respect users’ privacy can be found here. The most important aspect is making sure that the provider can be trusted.
Please refer to Article #175: FAQ - Circumvention & Anonymity tools list.
Please note that for the case of China, Kazakhstan or other locations where Tor may be blocked, it is important to add bridges to the Tor setup (in the case of China, have the user select meek bridges).
- Article on what to do when Tor is blocked in a country
- FAQ on Tor bridges
- How to add bridges in the Tor Browser
- See Article #248: Digital security advice when travelling to China
If the client does not need to access their email and social media accounts, they can create new accounts just for the trip that they will “throw away” afterwards.
They can use the temporary address for all non-sensitive communications while travelling, so that if the account is compromised it will give the attacker no value beyond the end of their trip.
Alternative social media accounts could be useful in case the authorities can force visitors to disclose the passwords for their accounts at the border, but the client should be aware that a recently opened and/or inactive account might be less credible and that they should spend some time populating the alternative accounts with connections (possibly not their real network of friends and colleagues) and non-sensitive content.
Recommend the client not to log into their regular accounts until or unless they can be confident that the connection and computer are safe.
Mobile phones should generally be considered as insecure, and it’s better to travel with a burner phone. If the client needs to take their work phone with them, they should back up all data in a different device and remove them from the phone and its memory card.
- Basic general recommendations for feature phones
- Basic general recommendations for smartphones
- Basic security settings for Android devices
Secure communications on mobile devices
Even if mobile devices are less secure than laptops, they can be useful to establish a secure communication channel while travelling, thanks to end-to-end encrypted messaging and voice apps like WhatsApp, Signal or Wire.
- Mail encryption on Android (the client should be warned to use a subkey or to generate a different pair of keys for using GPG on a phone)
Make sure the links are working properly before sending to the client.
- Access Now Helpline end-user guide for safer travels (Russian translation)
- A post on the Access Now blog with general guidelines on digital security while traveling
- EFF published a travel guide focused on US border crossing
- Establish a technical and legal shield against the latest laptop ban concerning certain airlines
- Princeton University International Travel guide
- The Umbrella app offers important tips on safer travels for people at risk
- Article #175: FAQ - Circumvention & Anonymity tools list
- Article #182: FAQ - Secure Backup
- Article #128: Antivirus for Mac
- Article #90: Two-Factor Authentication for Google Account
- Article #168: Secure Yahoo Account with 2-Step Verification
- Article #166: Full-Disk Encryption (FDE)
- Article #248: Digital security advice when travelling to China